History of the Nazarenes
 


Below are 2 articles providing the origins and background of the Natsraya ("Nazarene") faith which are God's Branches (see Linguistics) and afterwards scriptural references to "Nazarene", "Nazarenes" and "Nazareth" are provided to illustrate their frequency - a total of 53 - in the New Testament.  Upon reading scripture, you will note that Yashaya never refers to Himself as a Jew nor do His followers - He is frequently refered to as the Natsari and His followers as Natsraya - Nazarenes in Aramaic. If you notice as you read the New Testament, note how they always refer to Jews as a very separate sect apart from themselves.

Origin of the Natzraya

The Natzraya are a 2000 year old sect of Judaism who take their name from that of their founding rabbi, Yeshua Natzraya (ca. 1 b.c.e. - 33 c.e.), whom they believe is the anointed spiritual deliverer of Israel - the Messiah.

Yeshua grew up near the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee, which is alternately called the Genasaret, Kinneret or the Sea of Tiberias. His village was called Natzrat and was located between the plain of Ginosar and Tel Kinrot.

The area around the north-west side of the lake was also called Gen Nasaret, Ginosar, and Kineret alternately. These all refer to the same place located between Magdala to the south, Keper Nahum (Capernaum) to the east, and Hana (Cana) to the west. However the village and synagogue of Natzrat no longer exist. The historical site of Yeshua's home remains overlooked by scholars, archaeologists, and tourists alike.

The modern city of Nazareth (pop. 64,500), which lies further west, is not the original home  of Yeshua Natzraya and did not exist in his time. That settlement was created in the 4th century after Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine, arbitrarily declared a scarcely inhabited hill to be Nazareth. A city was then built around the ancient cemetery of the nearby village of Yaffa. Today, as then, the city is a major tourist attraction and destination for Christian pilgrims. 

Surnames were often based upon the name of one's village. If you were from Magdala, your were one of the Magdalaya. If from Keper Nahum, you were one of the Nahumaya. Now if you were from Natzrat, you were one of the Natzraya.

  "And he settled in a town called Natzrat so that something the prophets said might be 
    fulfilled, that he would be called Natzraya."
 - Matay (Mathew) 2:23

The designation Natzraya became the namesake of His followers regardless of their origin or residence. This term has been translated into English as Nazarenes, in Arabic as Nasara, in Hebrew as Notzrim, and in Greek as Nadzorayon. In different places and dialects the name Natzraya still survives in various forms even after much religious persecution and assimilation over the centuries.

The greater prophetic significance of the name and purpose is not commonly realized. It represents the restoration of the nation of Israel on a spiritual and moral basis. At a time when the nation was more concerned with their immediate temporal and political salvation from the Roman occupation, Yeshua came to address their need for salvation from themselves. He was leading them into the freedom of a kingdom that was within and between them. His way of eliminating their enemies was to love and convert them. Only once this was achieved could a real and stable kingdom exist.

Concerning the name Gen Nasaret, Gen is most often translated as garden or orchard, andnatzar means shoot. Today as in the ancient past, the plain of Ginosar is renowned for the fruit of it's orchards and gardens. The concepts of pruning and grafting were well known to it's inhabitants. The largest and oldest olive trees were harvested for wood used in boat making and other carpentry. 

Israel is compared to the life cycle of the olive tree by the prophets.

"Then יהוה said to me, A conspiracy has been discovered among the people of Yahuda and the residents of Aerishalem. They have turned back to the heinous crimes of their forefathers who refused to listen to my words, rather they have gone after other gods to serve them. The House of Aeisrayl and the House of Yahuda have both broken my covenant which I made with their forefathers. [...] יהוה called your name the Green Olive Tree, lovely with good fruit. But now with a violent noise He has broken your branches and set them on fire." Ærämya (Jeremiah) - 11:9-10,16

The Olive tree is well known for it's incredible ability to send up new shoots, even when the tree has been reduced to a mere stump. This gives the Olive tree a kind of immortality not enjoyed by other species.

"And a stem shall come up out of the stump of Yeshay, and a shoot [Heb. netzer] shall grow out of his roots [...] and in that day there shall be a root of Yeshay, which shall stand as an ensign for the people; the nations will look to it, and his resting place shall be wonderful." Æshåya (Isaiah) 11:1,10

Yeshua chose twelve men symbolic of the twelve tribes of Israel who were broken off the old tree. The old tree and it's stump represent the old covenant God made with Israel, but through Yeshua, the tree, and thus the covenant, is renewed. It is not a new tree, and thus the covenant literally, but the old being renewed. These twelve new branches would bear much fruit. Because not all of the old branches could be re-attached, branches were cut from uncultured and wild olive trees (non-Jews) and grafted onto the renewed tree to fill it out, so that it would bear an abundance of fruit. These scions are not the natural descendants of Israel but from other nationalities and ethnic groups.

"Again I ask: Have they [the branches of Israel] stumbled that they should fall beyond recovery? By no means! But through their fall, they should be become jealous that salvation has come to the nations. Now if their fall means blessings for the nations, consider what great blessing will result from their reinstatement! But now I am speaking to you who are from the nations, as an emissary to serve the nations, that increase my ministry. If by any means I can cause those of my people to become jealous and save some of them. For if their rejection is reconciliation for the world, what will their acceptance be except life from the dead?  Now if the first portion of dough is special then the whole lump is also special, and if the root is special so are the branches. Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you, though a wild olive shoot have been grafted in among the others and have become a partaker of the root and the richness of the olive tree, do not boast against the branches. if you do then consider this: You do not support the root, but rather the root supports you! You might reply: But the branches were broken off because of unfaithfulness, yet you have been established by faith. So do not be arrogant fools, but rather, be respectful. For if the Almighty did not spare the natural branches, He certainly will not spare you. Therefore behold the kindness and the harshness of the Almighty. Upon them that fell harshness, but toward you kindness but only if you continue in the same kindness otherwise you too will be broken off. And if they do not want to remain in their defective faith the Almighty is able to raft them back in as partakers. For if you were cut off from the naturally barbaric olive tree and contrary to what is natural you were grafted into the cultivated olive tree, how much more easily will the natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree?" - Romans 11:11-24


Although commonly referred to as a "sect of Judaism", in light of their true significance, the Natzraya do not consider "sect" to be an appropriate description. They believe that they are the only legitimate Israel with a covenant in good standing. Other sects of Judaism which have broken the covenant are considered to be those branches which were broken off, and therefore are not part of the living tree.

They do not believe, as most Jewish sects, that ordinary repentance alone is good enough to restore one's relationship with the Almighty, noting the fact that some sins can only be purged by blood, and by that, death. That blood and death being realized in the spending of Yeshua the innocent to redeem the guilty. By this they understand that only what then is spiritually born again in character can be considered innocent and free of corruption, just like the new shoot coming up from old roots.
Source: http://www.natzraya.org/Articles/Origin%20of%20the%20Natzraya/Origin%2520of%2520the%2520NatzrayaOld.html

Who are The Natzraya?

The Natzraya are a 2000 year old sect of Judaism who take their name from that of their founding rabbi, Yeshua Natzraya (ca. 1 b.c.e. - 33 c.e.), whom they believe is the anointed spiritual deliverer of Israel - the Messiah.

Although commonly referred to as a "sect of Judaism", in light of their true significance, the Natzraya do not consider "sect" to be an appropriate description. They believe that they are the only legitimate Israel with a covenant in good standing. Other sects of Judaism which have broken the covenant are considered to be those branches which were broken off, and therefore are not part of the living tree. 

The surname of Yeshua the Mashiha, and of his followers is best represented in English by Natzraya, however over time and through various dialects and languages the name has also been variable written as; Natzaraya, Ntsaraya, Natsraya, Nazarenes, Nazareans, Natsarenes, Nasoreans, Nazoreans, Natzarenes, Notzari, Notzarim, Notzri, Notzrim, Natzari, Natzarim, Natsari, Natsarim, Nadzorean, Nasara, Nasrani, Natzar, Netzer, Netzerim, Netzrim, Netzari, Netzarim, Nitzrim, Natsrim, Netseri, Nadzsorayn, Natzaray, etc. In the Talmud we are referred to as Notzrim and in the Quran as Nasar


Nätzär

נצריא from the root word  נצר (Ar. nätzär, Hb. nëtzër) n-tz-r  from the key letter צ tzade.

Natzraya is a plural term to describe an inclusive group of Natzari people. A single male is called a Natzar or Natzari, and a single female a Natzrati.  A group of exclusive Natzari women are called Natzrayn. An exclusive group of Natzari men are called Natzraya.

Although the name Natzraya may seem foreign to many, it is the surname of Yeshua the Mashiha, and it occurs at least 21 times in the New Testament. However it appears only once or twice in most Christian versions of the New Testament. This is why when Christians are asked, the majority can not recall their saviour's surname, the name of his sect, nor correctly identify his religion.

Christian translators have expunged the name Natzraya wherever possible by altering or replacing it with neutered terms like "Nazareth" or "Galilee" that do not legitimize the sect of the same name. This could be due to the fact that the Natzraya were counted as a heretical cult by early Christian theologians such as Ignatius and Epiphanius who rejected the name Natzraya and their beliefs. Epiphanius treats the people and the name with comtempt when he appears to create a pun comparing the Natzraya to crickets (also called natzraya) that should be "squashed".

Another meaning of natzar is to keep, guard, observe, etc. When this meaning is used sometimes the spelling is slightly altered to natar to distinguish the two. In this form, the name also occurs a little more covertly in other places such as Revelation 1:3 where those who keep or guard the words of the prophecy are referred to in the Aramaic text "Natrayan" whom the letter is apparently addressed to.  


Source: http://natzraya.com/About%20Us.html

 


Below are the Wikipedia entries for "Nazarenes" and "Nasrani":

The Sect of the Nazarenes (1st century)

Main articles: Book of Acts and Early Christianity

The name Nazaraios is the standard Greek spelling in the New Testament for a man from Nazareth; the plural Nazaraioi means "men from Nazareth" (see Nazarene (title)).[7] The title Nazarenes, "men from Nazareth," is first applied to the Christians by Tertullus (Acts 24:5), though Herod Agrippa II (Acts 26:28) uses the term "Christians" which had first been used at Antioch (Acts 11:26). The name used by Tertullus survives into Rabbinic and modern Hebrew as notzrim (נוצרים) a standard Hebrew term for "Christian", and also into theQuran and modern Arabic as nasara (plural of nasrani "Christians").

Tertullian (c. 160 – c. 220, Against Marcion, 4:8) records that the Jews called Christians "Nazarenes" from Jesus being a man of Nazareth, though he also makes the connection with Nazarites in Lamentations 4:7.[8] Jerome too records that "Nazarenes" was employed of Christians in the synagogues.[9] Eusebius, around 311 AD, records that the name "Nazarenes" had formerly been used of Christians.[10][11] The use relating to a specific "sect" of Christians does not occur until Epiphanius.[12] According to Ehrhardt, just as Antioch coined the term Christians, so Jerusalem coined the term Nazarenes, from Jesus of Nazareth.[13]

The terms "sect of the Nazarenes" and "Jesus of Nazareth" both employ the adjective nasraya (ܕܢܨܪܝܐ) in the Syrian Aramaic Peshitta, fromNasrat (ܢܨܪܬ) for Nazareth.[14][15][16]

The Nazarenes (4th century)

According to Epiphanius in his Panarion, the 4th-century Nazarenes (Ναζωραιοι) were originally Jewish converts of the Apostles[17] who fled Jerusalem because of Jesus' prophecy of its coming siege (during the Great Jewish Revolt in 70 AD). They fled to Pella, Peraea (northeast of Jerusalem), and eventually spread outwards to Beroea and Basanitis, where they permanently settled (Panarion 29.3.3).

The Nazarenes were similar to the Ebionites, in that they considered themselves Jews, maintained an adherence to the Law of Moses, and used only the Aramaic Gospel of the Hebrews, rejecting all the Canonical gospels. However, unlike half of the Ebionites, they accepted the Virgin Birth.[18][19]

As late as the eleventh century, Cardinal Humbert of Mourmoutiers still referred to the Nazarene sect as a Sabbath-keeping Christian body existing at that time.[20] Modern scholars believe it is the Pasagini or Pasagians who are referenced by Cardinal Humbert, suggesting the Nazarene sect existed well into the eleventh century and beyond (the Catholic writings of Bonacursus entitled "Against the Heretics"). It is believed that Gregorius of Bergamo, about 1250 CE, also wrote concerning the Nazarenes as the Pasagians.

Gospel of the Nazarenes

The Gospel of the Nazarenes is the title given to fragments of one of the lost Jewish-Christian Gospels of Matthew partially reconstructed from the writings of Jerome.

Patristic references to "Nazarenes"

In the 4th century, Jerome also refers to Nazarenes as those "who accept Messiah in such a way that they do not cease to observe the old Law." In his Epistle 79, to Augustine, he said:

What shall I say of the Ebionites who pretend to be Christians? To-day there still exists among the Jews in all the synagogues of the East a heresy which is called that of the Minæans, and which is still condemned by the Pharisees; [its followers] are ordinarily called 'Nasarenes'; they believe that Christ, the son of God, was born of the Virgin Mary, and they hold him to be the one who suffered under Pontius Pilate and ascended to heaven, and in whom we also believe. But while they pretend to be both Jews and Christians, they are neither.[21]

Jerome viewed a distinction between Nazarenes and Ebionites, a different Jewish sect, but does not comment on whether Nazarene Jews considered themselves to be "Christian" or not or how they viewed themselves as fitting into the descriptions he uses. He clearly equates them with Filaster's Nazarei.[22] His criticism of the Nazarenes is noticeably more direct and critical than that of Epiphanius.

The following creed is from a church at Constantinople at the same period, and condemns practices of the Nazarenes:

I renounce all customs, rites, legalisms, unleavened breads & sacrifices of lambs of the Hebrews, and all other feasts of the Hebrews, sacrifices, prayers, aspersions, purifications, sanctifications and propitiations and fasts, and new moons, and Sabbaths, and superstitions, and hymns and chants and observances and Synagogues, and the food and drink of the Hebrews; in one word, I renounce everything Jewish, every law, rite and custom and if afterwards I shall wish to deny and return to Jewish superstition, or shall be found eating with the Jews, or feasting with them, or secretly conversing and condemning the Christian religion instead of openly confuting them and condemning their vain faith, then let the trembling of Gehazi cleave to me, as well as the legal punishments to which I acknowledge myself liable. And may I be anathema in the world to come, and may my soul be set down with Satan and the devils."[23]

"Nazarenes" are referenced past the fourth century AD as well. Jacobus de Voragine (1230–98) described James as a "Nazarene" in The Golden Legend, vol 7. Thomas Aquinas (1225–74) quotes Augustine of Hippo, who was given an apocryphal book called Hieremias by a "Hebrew of the Nazarene Sect", in Catena Aurea — Gospel of Matthew, chapter 27. So this terminology seems to have remained at least through the 13th century in European discussions.

Nazarene beliefs

The beliefs of the Nazarene sect or sects are described through various church fathers and heresiologists.

  • in Jesus as Messiah:

The Nazarenes... accept Messiah in such a way that they do not cease to observe the old Law.

—Jerome, On. Is. 8:14
  • in the Virgin Birth:

They believe that Messiah, the Son of God, was born of the Virgin Mary.

—Jerome,  Letter 75 Jerome to Augustine
  • in Jesus as the Son of God:

Matthew, also called Levi, apostle and aforetimes publican, composed a gospel of Christ at first published in Judea in Hebrew for the sake of those of the circumcision who believed, but this was afterwards translated into Greek though by what author is uncertain. The Hebrew itself has been preserved until the present day in the library at Cæsarea which Pamphilus so diligently gathered. I have also had the opportunity of having the volume described to me by the Nazarenes of Beroea, a city of Syria, who use it. In this it is to be noted that wherever the Evangelist, whether on his own account or in the person of our Lord the Saviour quotes the testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the translators of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. Wherefore these two forms exist “Out of Egypt have I called my son,” and “for he shall be called a Nazarene.”

—Jerome, Lives of Illustrius Men Ch.3

They have no different ideas, but confess everything exactly as the Law proclaims it and in the Jewish fashion – except for their belief in Christ, if you please! For they acknowledge both the resurrection of the dead and the divine creation of all things, and declare that God is one, and that his Son is Jesus Christ.

—Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion 29.7.2
  • Adhering to circumcision and the Law of Moses:

They disagree with Jews because they have come to faith in Christ; but since they are still fettered by the Law – circumcision, the Sabbath, and the rest – they are not in accord with the Christians.

—Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion 29.7.4
  • Use of Old Testament and New Testament:

They use not only the New Testament but the Old Testament as well, as the Jews do.

—Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion 29.7.2
  • Use of Hebrew and Aramaic New Testament source texts:

They have the Gospel according to Matthew in its entirety in Hebrew. For it is clear that they still preserve this, in the Hebrew alphabet, as it was originally written.

—Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion 29.9.4

And he [Heggesippus the Nazarene] quotes some passages from the Gospel according to the Hebrews and from the Syriac [the Aramaic], and some particulars from the Hebrew tongue, showing that he was a convert from the Hebrews, and he mentions other matters as taken from the oral tradition of the Jews.

—Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History 4.22

Mandaeans

Those few who are initiated into the secrets of the anti-Christian Mandaean religion are called Naṣuraiia or Nasoraeans. The Mandaeans claim to have fled Jerusalem before its fall (70 AD) due to persecution by the Jews. The word Naṣuraiia in this case may come from the root n-ṣ-r meaning to keep, since they were keepers of the law. Epiphanius mentions a group called Nasaraeans (Νασαραίοι, Part 19 of the Panarion), distinguished from the "Nazoraioi" (Part 29). The former (the Nasaraeans) may be the same as the Mandaeans of today. Epiphanius says (29:6) that they existed before Christ. This is questioned by some, but others accept the pre-Christian origin of this group.[24]

Modern "Nazarene" churches

A number of modern churches use the word "Nazarene" or variants in their name or beliefs:

See also

References


  • Acts 24:5 "For we have found this man a pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes."

  • David C. Sim The Gospel of Matthew and Christian Judaism 1998 p182 "The Nazarenes are first mentioned by Epiphanius who records that they upheld the Torah, including the practice of circumcision and sabbath observance (Panarion 29:5.4; 7:2, 5; 8:1-7), read the Hebrew scriptures in the original Hebrew"

  • Petri Luomanen "Nazarenes" in A companion to second-century Christian "heretics" pp279

  • Memoirs of Dr. Joseph Priestley - Page 670 The term Ebionites occurs in Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, and Eusebius but none of them make any mention of Nazarenes ; and yet it cannot be denied, that they must have been even more considerable in the time of these writers,

  • Edward Hare The principal doctrines of Christianity defended 1837 p318 "The Nazarenes of ecclesiastical history adhered to the law of their fathers ; whereas when Tertullus accused Paul as "a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes," he accused him as one who despised the law, and " had gone about to the temple," Acts xxiv, 5, 6. "

  • Frank Ely Gaebelein, James Dixon Douglas The Expositor's Bible commentary: with the New International Version 1984 "Matthew certainly used Nazoraios as an adjectival form of apo Nazaret ("from Nazareth" or "Nazarene"), even though the more acceptable adjective is Nazarenos(cf. Bonnard, Brown, Albright and Mann, Soares Prabhu)."

  • "G3480", Lexicon, Strong.

  • Teppler, Yaakov Y; Weingarten, Susan (2007), Birkat haMinim: Jews and Christians in conflict in the ancient world, p. 52, This presumption is strengthened by the statement of Tertullian: The Christ of the Creator had to be called a Nazarene... Unde et ipso nomine nos ludaei Nazarenos appellant per eum. Nam et sumus iie auibus scriptum est: Nazaraei....

  • Schnelle, Udo (1987), Antidoketische Christologie im Johannesevangelium, p. 41, usquehodiein synagogis suis sub nomine Nazarenorum blasphemant populum christianum... 191; In Esaiam 5,18–19: ...in blasphemiis et ter per singulos dies in omnibus synagogis sub nomine Nazarenorum anathematizent uocabulum Christianum...

  • Bulletin, School of Oriental Studies, 2002.

  • Epiphanius Panarion 29

  • Priestley, Dr Joseph, MemoirsThe term Ebionites occurs in Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, and Eusebius but none of them make any mention of Nazarenes

  • Ehrhardt, Arnold, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 114, (John 1 :46) is an apt commentary upon this development, for there seems to be no evidence to support the thesis of a... We only mention it because it has given rise to all sorts of speculations amongst the more imaginative students of Christian origins

  • Metzger, Bruce Manning (1977), The early versions of the New Testament, p. 86, Peshitta Matt, and Luke... nasraya, 'of Nazareth'

  • Jennings, William (1926), Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament, p. 143

  • Smith, Robert Payne (1903), Compendious Syriac Dictionary, p. 349.

  • Panarion 29.5.6

  • Krauss, Samuel"Nazarenes". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

  • Hegg, Tim (2007). "The Virgin Birth – An Inquiry into the Biblical Doctrine" (PDF). TorahResource. Retrieved 2007-08-13.

  • Strong (1874), Cyclopedia I, New York, p. 660.

  • "Jewish Encyclopedia". |chapter= ignored (help)

  • Filaster (ca. 397 AD) was a bishop who wrote the "Book of Diverse Heresies" (lived about the time of Epiphanius). Pritz, Ray, Nazarene Jewish Christianity: from the end of the New Testament period until its disappearance in the fourth century, p. 73 ft.12, The sect of Filaster (Nazorei/Nazarei) derives somehow from the Nazirites and accepts the Law and prophets.

  • Parks, James (1974), The Conflict of The Church and The Synagogue, New York: Atheneum, pp. 397–98.

    1. Drower, Ethel Stephana (1960). The secret Adam, a study of Nasoraean gnosis. London UK: Clarendon Press. xvi. Archived from the original on Mar 6, 2014., p. xiv.

    External links

    Nazarenes

    Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is "Nazarenes" which is used by the Jewish lawyerTertullus in Acts 24. Tertullian (Against Marcion 4:8) records that "the Jews call us Nazarenes," *

    Editors Note:

    while around 331 AD Eusebius records that Christ was called a Nazoraean from the name Nazareth, and that in earlier centuries "Christians," were once called "Nazarenes."[15] The Hebrew equivalent of "Nazarenes", Notzrim, occurs in theBabylonian Talmud, and is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian.

    The identification of Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by Judaism. The term for a Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי (Notzri—"Nazarene"), a Talmudic term originally derived from the fact that Jesus came from the Galilean village of Nazareth, today in northern Israel.[18] Adherents of Messianic Judaism are referred to in modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים (Yehudim Meshihi'im—"Messianic Jews").

    Arabic terms

    In Arabic-speaking cultures, two words are commonly used for Christians: Nasrani(نصراني), plural Nasara (نصارى) is generally understood to be derived fromNazareth[19] through the Syriac (Aramaic); Masihi (مسيحي) means followers of the Messiah.[19][20]

    Where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a Christian culture andMasihi means those with a religious faith in Jesus.[21] In some countries Nasranitends to be used generically for non-Muslim white people.[21] Another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a political context, is Salibi (صليبي "Crusader") from salib (صليب "crucifix") which refers to Crusaders and has negative connotations.[20][22]
    Nazareth the city is described as the childhood home of Jesus, in many languages employ the word Nazarene as a general designation for those of the Christian faith.


    The identification of Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by Judaism. The term for a Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי (Notzri—"Nazarene"), a Talmudic term originally derived from the fact that Jesus came from the Galilean village of Nazareth, today in northern Israel.[18] Adherents of Messianic Judaism are referred to in modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים (Yehudim Meshihi'im—"Messianic Jews").

    Arabic terms

    In Arabic-speaking cultures, two words are commonly used for Christians: Nasrani (نصراني), plural Nasara (نصارى) is generally understood to be derived from Nazareth[19] through the Syriac (Aramaic); Masihi (مسيحي) means followers of the Messiah.[19][20]

    Where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a Christian culture and Masihi means those with a religious faith in Jesus.[21] In some countries Nasrani tends to be used generically for non-Muslim white people.[21] Another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a political context, is Salibi (صليبي "Crusader") from salib (صليب "crucifix") which refers to Crusaders and has negative connotations.[20][22]